Paper in the “Architectural Education Today: Cross-Cultural Perspectives” edited by A. M. Salama, W. O’Reilly, Kaj Noschis. Published by Comportements, Switzerland, 2002.

The paper examines the contraction between the ethos of architectural education, which still regards the architect as primarily an individual “artist”, and the reality of the working architect, who is always part of a team. The various stages of architectural practice are examined in view of the required management skills and compared with the methodology of architectural education primarily in Lebanon.

A reconsideration of how architecture is taught is called for to respond to today’s world of increasing specialization and globalization that further increase the need of skills of communication, negotiation, and teamwork. The paper finally aims at a change in the ethos of architectural education to break the architect’s isolation from his society.